История башкирского народа. Том 2
История башкирского народа : в 7 т./ гл. ред. М.М. Кульшарипов ; Ин-т истории, языка и литературы УНЦ РАН. – Уфа.: Гилем, 2012. - 400 с.: ил. - ISBN 978-5-02-037008-1.
Т. II. – 2012. – ISBN 978-5-91608-100-8 (т. 2) (в пер.) (в пер.)
Второй том «Истории башкирского народа» охватывает период с V до середины XVI века. На основе данных археологии, антропологии, этнографии, свидетельств письменных источников и фольклорных памятников рассматриваются вопросы этногенеза, происхождения и ранние этапы истории башкирского народа. Характеризуется материальная культура, язык, литература и устное народное творчество указанного периода.
Начало и введение:
ИСТОЧНИКОВЕДЕНИЕ ИСТОРИИ БАШКИР. Стр. 16-50:
ЭТНОПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СИТУАЦИЯ В ЕВРАЗИИ
В ПЕРИОД ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ БАШКИРСКОГО НАРОДА. Стр. 51-120:
ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ БАШКОРТОСТАН И ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ БАШКИРСКОГО НАРОДА. Стр. 121-168:
ЭПОХА ЗОЛОТОЙ ОРДЫ В ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЙ СУДЬБЕ БАШКИРСКОГО НАРОДА. Стр. 169-204:
РЕЛИГИОЗНЫЕ ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЯ БАШКИР СРЕДНЕВЕКОВЬЯ. Стр. 205-228:
СОЦИАЛЬНОЕ УСТРОЙСТВО ЖИЗНИ БАШКИР СРЕДНЕВЕКОВЬЯ. Стр. 229-276:
АНТРОПОЛОГИЯ БАШКИРСКОГО НАРОДА. Стр. 277-304:
ДУХОВНАЯ И МАТЕРИАЛЬНАЯ КУЛЬТУРА БАШКИРСКОГО НАРОДА. Стр. 305-378:
Библиография и оглавление:
The periodization of the ethnogenesis and the early history of the Bashkir people looks as folows. The first stage refers to the mid-Ist millennium B.C. until the turn of the VIIIth–IXth centuries. In general this period coincides with the stage of archaic empires (VIth–IXth centuries) of the Turkic ethnogenesis singled out by S.G. Klyashtorny. The content of this stage is turning of the ethnonym "Turk" into а polytonym, designating all population subservient to the creators of the First Turkic Khanate.
During this period among the Turkic tribes they record some ethnic names known later as a part of the ancient Bashkir tribal alliance including the proper word Bashkort. The history of these tribes is connected with the territory of Central Asia, and for the earlier period with Southern Siberia and the Altai.
On the territory of modern Bashkortostan in this period one fixes a motley ethnic composition. The bearers of the Bahmutino culture are descendants of the earlier population of the Pyanobor era. According to most researchers this population belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. The Turbasly culture that had developed in this period in Central Bashkortostan has no local roots. Researchers attribute its origin to the nomadic tribes who had come from the Hun tribal alliance.
During the same period one records new cultural entities whose appearance in the Southern Urals can be associated with the creation of the First Turkic Khanate. These are the monuments of Kushnarenkovo type which occupied the steppe zone on both sides of the Urals. In the steppe those are the monuments of the Selentash type.
The origin of the bearers of Kushnarenkovo ceramics is associated by virtually all researchers with the territory of Western Siberia. On the ethnicity of this population expert opinion is divided. Some researchers speak about the Ugrian affinity of the Kushnarenkovo population. N.A. Mazhitov insists on the Turkic and moreover on the ancient Bashkir attribution of these monuments. The repeatedly voiced opinion of V.A. Mogilnikov somewhat reconciles the opponents viz the view on the mixed character of the said population. According to V.A.Mogilnikov the bearers of the Kushnarenkovo type memorials were a mixed population perhaps Turkic-Ugric or Ugric in origin, but those who were subject to a strong influence of the Turks. The Turkization process could take place in the framework of participation of the population in the composition of the First Turkic Khanate.
On the ethnicity of Selentash type bearers there is no consensus among researchers either. Some consider them to be Turks (S.G. Botalov, N.A. Mazhitov), others deem them Chionites (I.E. Lyubchansky).
Either way, science as yet cannot give a clear one-to-one solution on the participation of ethnic groups mentioned in the ethnogenesis of the Bashkirs. The anthropology data let only hypothetically assume that the Bahmutino culture bearers as representatives of the Ural race and the Turbasly culture bearers as a Caucasoid population could participate in the formation of the Uraloid and Caucasoid types of the Bashkir people.
By the end of this period there occurs a relative levelling of the material culture of the peoples of South Urals. In the VIIIth–IXth centuries in the forest-steppe zone of the Urals the Karayakupovo monuments of culture dominate. Besides from the previous culture only traces of Kushnarenkovo archaeological culture remain. Most researchers explain this fact by an affinity of the population of both cultures. The monuments of the Kushnarenkovo and the Karayakupovo cultures are but the southwest wing of a large ethno-cultural community which also includes the Nevolino and Bakalsk cultures. All these formations are located mainly in the forest-steppe zone, and they are characterized by a confusion of the steppe and forest characteristics in culture. In the south-eastern monuments of this community one can trace a strong influence of the Strostki culture which, is after V.A. Mogilnikov, the material expression of the Kimak Khaganate culture. On the other hand, on the south-western monuments they trace the Saltovka traits that mark the culture of the Khazar Khaganate. That means the southern groups of the Ural and TransUral steppe population participated in the life of Turkic state entities.
The data on anthropology allow to suggest that the population which left the Karayakupovo culture had directly participated in the ethnogenesis of the Bashkirs.
The second phase of Bashkir ethnogenesis one may define within limits of the late IXth–Xth centuries – XIIth century. During this period a number of Turkic tribes united in the ancient Bashkir tribal alliance migrated to the Southern Urals and became the nucleus of the ancient Bashkir ethnicity. The word Bashkort had been already mentioned in connection with the Pecheneg-Oguz wars. During this period the ethnonym Bashkort is clearly associated with the Southern Urals among medieval writers.
In the forest-steppe zone of the Urals in the period there spread monuments of the Chiyalik culture. This community occupied the territory which still has been populated by Bashkirs – from the eastern regions of Tatarstan to the west of the Kurgan region. The elements of material culture recorded archaeologically and the anthropological data conclusively demonstrate that the bearers of the Chiyalik culture are the direct ancestors of the Bashkirs. On this basis the Chiyalik culture refers to the culture of the ancient Bashkirs.
The basis of the economy of this part of ancient Bashkirs was the semi-nomadic pastoralism given the development of home crafts (pottery, working of metal, wood, bone and skin). There was a tradition of building fortified settlements. Archaeologically one traced similarities of the Chiyalik culture with the world of the steppe culture of Western Siberia.
Bashkir monuments of the steppe zone are presented and studied much worse than the forest-steppe ones. This is due to a number of objective and subjective reasons. Also for various reasons they have not been the subject of a special study. At this level of scrutiny we can only assume that the sites located on the border of the steppe and foreststeppe belong to the ancient Bashkirs (the Staroje Musino, Zhitimak (Zetimbyak), Syntysh-tamak barrows, etc.).
Perhaps the zonal division of the ancient monuments of the Bashkirs corresponds to medieval authors division of the Bashkirs into the external and internal ones. From this perspective the "external" Bashkirs can match burial mounds of Central Bashkortostan, while the monuments of the Chiyalik culture may refer to the "Internal" Bashkirs.
The inner cities of Bashkirs described by Al-Idrisi match Chiyalik settlements. In folklore monuments we also found division of Bashkirs into two groups: the forest and grassland ones. Probably due to this situation is the coexistence of two ethnonyms – Bashkort and Ishtyak designating one and the same nation.
The content of this phase of the Bashkir ethnogenesis can be considered as the formation of a new ethnic group "ancient Bashkir ethnicity" based on the interaction of various outsiders and local ethnic groups. Undoubtedly, Turkic elements played the leading role in this new community. However, one can not exclude the existence of bilingualism at this stage. Unfortunately, archaeological material does not provide evidence of the linguistic affiliation of archaeological culture bearers.
R.G. Kuzeiev’s assumption on the formation of the ancient Bashkirs in Bugulma-Belebey hill country has not been confirmed by the archaeological materials. As shown in this publication towards the Xth–XIst centuries ancient Bashkirs had mastered the territory largely corresponding to the modern resettlement of the Bashkir people.
At this stage they fix penetration of Islam into the ancient Bashkirs’ midst. The third stage of the Bashkir ethnogenesis is associated with the period of the XIIIth–XVth centuries. The process of ethnogenetic orientation at this stage is associated with campaigns of the Mongols and the affiliation of Bashkortostan with the Mongol Empire.
According to historical records, legends, and the shezhere the river Yaik (Ural) in this period becomes the southern boundary of the Bashkirs’ resettlement. The left bank of Yaik becomes a place of nomadism first of Mongol nomads, then of the Nogais and later of the Kazakhs. During this period, the Dasht-i-Kipchak population fleeing from the Mongol conquest rushes to the Southern Urals. During the "great havoc" and the subsequent collapse of the Golden Horde new waves of Dasht-i-Kipchak clans rush to the Southern Urals and a number of Bulghar tribal divisions do the same. This is explained by the fact that on the territory of Bashkortostan there was not any real presence of the Mongol administration, and this attracted those who tried to escape its pressure. Another incentive for the resettlement of nomads in the Southern Urals was the increase of the steppe humidity in the XIIIth-XIVth centuries.
By the end of this stage and on the eve of the Bashkirs’ joining the Russian state the territorial limits of Bashkir tribes have been more or less defined.
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