История башкирского народа. Том 6
История башкирского народа : в 7 т. / гл. ред. М.М. Кульшарипов ; Ин-т истории, языка и литературы УНЦ РАН. — М. , 2009–. — ISBN 978-5-02-037008-1
Т. VI. — 2011 — 374 с. : ил. — ISBN 978-5-02-036494-3 (в пер.)
Шестой том «Истории башкирского народа» посвящен периоду с июня 1941 по апрель 1985 г. В нем особое место занимают события Второй мировой и Великой Отечественной войн, в ходе которых башкиры внесли посильный вклад в победу над фашистской Германией. Рассматривается участие народа в послевоенное сорокалетие в социально-экономической, общественно-политической и культурной жизни СССР. Показываются изменения в демографии башкир в указанный период. Уделено внимание освещению жизни и деятельности башкир, оказавшихся за пределами СССР.
In the history of the Bashkir people the period from 1941 to April 1985 is one of the most complicated and controversial periods. The еvents of the Second World War, including the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, which is one of the most dramatic and the hardest times in the history of the peoples of the USSR and of the BASSR, have left an indelible trace in the position and demographic development of the Bashkir people. Together with other peoples of the Bashkir ASSR, one of the most important regions of the country in strategic and economic terms, our people, both on the home front and on the front line, defended the common Motherland from the enemy, and it has made a significant contribution to the Victory over German Nazism. 277 Heroes of the Soviet Union were natives of the autonomous republic, and 15 of their number were Bashkir warriors. Representatives of the Bashkir people living in other regions of the USSR also displayed courage and heroism in battles, and have been deservedly awarded war decorations. However, the events of the war have influenced negatively the Bashkirs’ position and their development, which led to a deterioration in all demographic indicators, including the spread of assimilatory processes and the reduction in total number of the Bashkir population.
The events of the early 1940s had their impact on the fundamental transformation of the socio-political and economic situation in the country and regions, including the Republic of Bashkortostan. Changes occurring in the ethnic composition of personnel in the management bodies, economy, education, culture and health reduced the representation of the Bashkirs. The weakening of ethnic culture in the years of mass repressions of 1937–1938 had a disastrous effect on the culture and spiritual life of the Bashkir people in the war years and subsequent periods, also one could observe certain internationalization processes.
In the post-war and subsequent periods the development of the Bashkir people was no less complicated and contradictory. The occurring events have had a significant impact on the Bashkir ethnos: the post-war economic recovery and the Bashkirs’ participation in this, the reforms and hasty innovations by N.S. Khrushchev had their consequences and had their influence on the socio-economic situation of the Bashkirs. They have had a significant impact on the demographic status of the Bashkir people, also on the distribution of assimilatory and urbanization processes. This led to a blurring of their ethnic self-identification, particularly among the youth. The same processes occurred as a result of the involvement and participation of the Bashkirs in the industrial production. They were employed mainly in labour-intensive and unskilled jobs, there was but a small proportion of them among the engineering-technical personnel, and this had a negative impact on the standards of living and welfare of the ethnic group and its development. The migration of the Bashkirs, mostly young and middleaged, to other regions of the USSR in compliance with the state policy had a negative impact on the socio-economic situation of our people, its ethnic culture and identity, social activity and political mobility. More salient still were the fictitious nature of this people’s autonomy and its lack of rights. There has developed a paradoxical situation: in their historical homeland in the years under review, the Bashkirs were in the minority, showing a widespread trend towards linguistic assimilation.
Despite the complexity and contradictions of development, the ideological dictate and the omnipotence of censorship, the development of the Bashkir culture, science and education continued. Representatives of literature and art contributed their share to both the domestic and world treasury of culture, they conquered the world’s stages and widely popularized culture and traditions of their people through their works. Major achievements in science and education are also associated with names of Bashkir scientists and scholars some of whom, even while abroad, continued to serve their people and left an unforgettable trace in science and culture.
By the beginning of the 1980s, activity in all areas of social development slows down, crisis phenomena clearly manifest themselves. They have had a considerable influence on the deterioration of the overall situation in the USSR. The Bashkir ASSR, where the bulk of Bashkir population resided, turned out to be an administrative-territorial entity in name only—without rights within the union state, deprived of political and economic independence. The previous system of management from the top remained without changes. Participation of the Bashkirs in the republic’s life was not noted for its particular activity. Their representation at the key positions in all spheres has been fairly insignificant which had a negative influence upon the development of this ethnos.