История башкирского народа. Том 5
История башкирского народа : в 7 т./ гл. ред. М.М. Кульшарипов ; Ин-т истории, языка и литературы УНЦ РАН. – Уфа. : Гилем, 2010. – 468 с.: ил. – ISBN 978-5-02-037008-1.
Т. V. – 2009. – ISBN 978-5-7501-1199-2 (т. 5) (в пер.)
Пятый том «Истории башкирского народа» охватывает период с 1900 по 1940 г. В нем на базе многих первоисточников и с новых методологических позиций подробно и на доступном для широкого круга читателей языке освещаются наиболее крупные вехи истории башкир: участие в войнах и революциях начала XX в., завоевание политической автономии, приобщение к индустриальному труду и городской культуре и т. д.
Начало и введение:
The first four decades of the XXth century have marked a special stage in the history of the Bashkir people. It, among other peoples of this country has fully experienced all consequences of revolutions and wars, destruction of the traditional way of life as the result of a forced construction of a new, «Socialist» society. Nevertheless even in the conditions of Bolshevist social experiments and sharp civilizational alternations the Bashkirs have displayed uncommon vital energy and high adaptability possibilities. They have won the political autonomy, have joined the industrial production, made a worthy contribution to the Russian and world spiritual culture.
By the beginning of the XXth century Bashkirs in their great bulk dwelt in the countryside, were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, various crafts; were involved, albeit slowly, in industrial production and trade sphere, joined the town culture. The widespread thesis Saying that during the specified period they were seminomads, doesn’t mirror the reality. Departures on «summer outings» of inhabitants of some dwellers of the South-east volosts, practiced up to now in the mountainwoody areas of Bashkortostan, were but a peculiar form of national-specific cattle breeding. Agriculture which quite often was of the already commodity character used to be the basic employment of the overwhelming majority of the local population.
A feature of development of the Bashkir society in early XXth century was that in it (due to gradual involvement in market relations) inevitably there was social stratification and a change in social-cultural values. One of major indicators of the level of development of the Bashkir people by October, 1917 was forming of the intelligentsia which further on has headed the national movement.
By early XXth century the Bashkir people have been firmly integrated into the Russian state, it lived by interests of this country and would share all her hardships. A bright example of Bashkirs’ civil maturity and patriotism have become their feats-of-arms in the ranks of the Russian army in wars of early XXth century. However by that time they were not any more a militaryservicemen estate as they were of the epoch of the canton management, therefore during Russo-Japanese war and World War I any separate Bashkir regiments would not be formed. The Bashkir recruits served and were at war as a part of various military units that complicates picturing in full their valorous service to Russia.
Revolutionary upheavals of early XXth century in the country have produced ambiguous, at times negative influence on the fate of the Bashkir people. The nationalization of land by the Soviet power has led to the abrogation of the Bashkir commoners’ right to it that deprived them of one of major economic and moral supports, and opened new channels for rapacious use of the natural riches of our land. However people haven’t severed their links with the land, has contrived to upkeep a special moral sense in the peasant’s work, even in the conditions of the kolkhoz system.
After the disintegration of the Russian empire the right of peoples to self-determination promised by the Bolsheviks appeared hard to be effected in practice. The Bashkir leaders and all Bashkir nation had to apply much force for achieving a political autonomy and its recognition by the Centre. This is much explained by the centrist policy of the Bashkir government led by Z. Validi concerning the Whites and the Reds in days of the Civil war. Nevertheless the result of political efforts of the whole nation has been truely historical — not only did the Bashkir autonomy come into being, its recognition by the central Soviet power has led to the formation of a new Russian statehood based on federal principles.
Active national-state construction in the region in the 20s and 30s of the XXth century (formation in 1922 of «Greater Bashkiria» on the basis of the Ufa province merging with the «Lesser Bashkiria», elaboration and adoption of the first Constitutions of the Republic, etc.) have set strong foundation for a positive development of the national statehood of Bashkirs. Here it is necessary to note that Bolshevists’ geostrategic conceptions have prevented inclusion of all erstwhile Bashkir lands in the frame of the Bashkir ASSR as planned by Z. Validi and his colleagues, the majority of whom being compelled to leave the Native land. As a result many thousand Bashkirs have found themselves within other administrative and territorial units. But also being away from the parent ethnos the Bashkirs of Orenburg, Samara, Chelyabinsk and other areas have continued to work for the sake of this country’s prosperity, and the emigre Bashkirs would protect interests of their own people and ideals of liberty.
Establishment of Soviet power in the Bashkir realm, the first Bolshevist transformations, the forced modernization (at the will of the top management) of all spheres of public life (the industrialization, collectivization and « the cultural revolution», etc.) have introduced basic alternations in Bashkirs’ life and mode of being. Material available at researchers’ disposal including the documentary and statistical one testifies to it being impossible to only adversely depict history of any nation proceeding from the fact of a totalitarian Bolshevist regime having set in the land.
One of illustrious achievements of Bashkortostan of the pre-war period is a powerful development of the Bashkir culture. It is during these years the first steps in effecting use of the Bashkir language as one of the Republic’s state tongues have been undertaken, new ABCs have been elaborated, norms of the new Bashkir standard language developed; there appeared a professional theater, art and so on. Successes in the field of science and education were impressive. If during the pre-revolutionary period in the whole vast Urals area there was not a single higher school, then in the 30s in the Bashkir republic alone three institutes – Pedagogical, Medical and Agricultural had been opened on which basis later on a system of higher education of the Republic had been founded.
Despite ideological dictatorship, the Bashkir scientists, teachers, figures in literature and art, propped by achievements of Bashkir national creative work and the world culture, have managed to find ways and reasons to serve their people, and to open for the latter new life vistas and creative space.
No doubt, as across the whole country there have been not a few socio-economic, cultural and political flaws and setbacks, major ones including, in the Bashkir ASSR, in the 20s and the 30s of the XXth century. This said, yet certain fundamental positive changes have taken place in the Republic’s economic development, also ones in setling issues of the cultural construction (in education, the arts, sciences and the fine arts). As the result of this by the time the Great Patriotic War started a multi-branch and modern enough industry had been created. On the eve of harsh war trials Bashkortostan has become the major-most military and economic backbone of this country.